Urgent need for centric public funded broadcast media
The media in Kenya is one of the most vibrant in Sub-Saharan Africa, and over the last two decades, it has expanded exponentially to a vibrant media system offering the Kenyan audience news from a variety of editorial perspectives.
Media scholars argue that a democracy needs, not only political plurality but also a plural media.
Studies have also shown that since the advent of liberalisation of the economy and the airwaves and more especially after President Mwai Kibaki’s ascension to power, the media in Kenya has grown to a diverse, multimillion dollar industry.
Others have lamented the commercialism that characterises this growth, arguing that multiplicity of choices does not necessarily mean divergence of sources and that to support democracy, the media engage the citizenry rather than just send information out there.
As study by scholars from Aga Khan University’s Graduate School of Media and Communications titled - Mapping Broadcast Media Outlets and Accredited Journalists in Kenya: Towards Understanding News and Information Inequalities - explores questions of news and information inequalities from a critical standpoint.
This study discusses how concentrated ownership and the commercial model of the media present challenges to public interest journalism and the findings are insightful.
Nairobi county is the news and information hub and journalists and broadcast media outlets are highly concentrated in the city centre.
Save for Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC), the other five of the big six media conglomerates have news bureaus in only eight other counties: Mombasa, Kisumu, Nyeri, Eldoret (Uasin Gishu), Nakuru, Kakamega, Kisii and Meru.
Earlier studies have established that the scaling down of newsroom operations and the dearth of physical and operational news bureaus, is symptomatic of increasing news desserts in a world where media is plural.
Put in context, it is safe to argue that the plural media in Kenya could be in the business of reaching the audience and not necessarily serving this audience with public interest, local news.
The study reveals, for instance, that the distribution of accredited journalists is directly associated with the presence of legacy media in the region.
Journalists are only available in regions and communities where their media houses are domiciled.
On the other hand, the reach of the 149 media outlets domiciled in Nairobi goes beyond the areas these media houses have journalists.
Whereas there are 102 radio stations in Nairobi; 15 counties in Kenya have no radio stations domiciled within their boundaries and a further 16 only have one radio station.
The findings further indicate that 35 counties lack even one TV station.
From a political economy of the media stand point, the study argues that the dearth of domiciled media and accredited journalists in most of the far-flung counties and the media’s focus on entertainment, leaves out local issues in many counties unaddressed.
In essence, the result is news and information inequalities as radio audiences in these areas consume non-local news produced cheaply in centralised news centres, targeting a mass audience for commercial purposes.
Critics argue that the drive that informs the expansion and wider audience reach by these media organisations is to a large extent, profit maximisation and not public interest.
To advance discussions on news inequalities and the situation in Kenya, the study provides insights and pathways that draw from the Scandinavian public funded broadcast media models, that are more vibrant with focus on public services journalism.
The study opens conversations on the need for country-centric public-funded broadcast media, that would not only address the local issues, but also hold the local country government accountable. — [email protected]