Yellow fever Spread by the bite of infected mosquito, yellow fever is not only a serious disease, but a life threatening infection caused by a virus. The disease is present in countries like South and Central America as well as in Africa. One dose is usually given for life and is taken 10 days before travelling to a tropical region. Once injected, a stamped official document\u00a0 issued titled \u2018The International Certificate of Vaccination Against Yellow Fever\u2019, which is a legal requirement for entry in most countries.\u00a0 2. Hepatitis A\u00a0 and B Hepatitis A spreads by faecal-oral contact. This can occur by consuming food or beverages contaminated with even tiny amounts of virus-laden faeces, or through close personal contact with someone who has hepatitis A. Hepatitis B spreads through contact with infected blood and can occur via sexual contact with someone who has the disease, by sharing personal items such as nail trimmers, razor or drug paraphernalia. Hepatitis B can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, and death It cost is Sh4,425 to get the vaccination in Kenya.\u00a0 3. Polio Polio is usually caused by a virus though one can get it while eating food or drinking water contaminated with faeces. If you have never been vaccinated, you might need a dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) should you be travelling to a region where the disease is prevalent. However, there are nations like India, Iraq and Qatar which require oral polio vaccination at least four weeks before departure. 4. Typhoid fever\u00a0 This is a life threatening infection caused by typhoid bacteria and people aquire it by either drinking contaminated water or food with faeces. There are two kinds of the typhoid vaccine; injection (by needle) and the other one is oral (by mouth). The oral one is given through a series of capsules, which can be taken from home while only one dose is given for the injection, just before travel.\u00a0 5. Influenza\u00a0 This is an infection of the throat, nose and lungs that is caused by the influenza virus and can spread from one individual to another either through coughing, having face to face contact or sneezing. It is recommended that one has it just before travel, especially during the flu season and this runs from November to April in the Northern hemisphere and from April to October in the Southern hemisphere. It is all year round in tropical regions. Adults are usually given one dose while children are given two doses. The adult vaccine is Sh900 in Kenyan hospitals.\u00a0 6. Traveller\u2019s diarrhoea and cholera These two conditions are caused by two kinds of bacteria and individuals become sick by either eating contaminated food or drinking water. If one does not receive treatment early, the disease can be life threatening. One can either take a series of doses to be mixed in water at home or liquid. Persons travelling to Central and South America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Eastern or Southern Europe need to get the vaccine.\u00a0 The total cost for this vaccine is around Sh2,140 in the country.\u00a0 7. Japanese encephalitis Caused by a virus, this serious and life threatening disease is spread through mosquito bites. It is usually given in two doses and is sometimes recommended for travellers to rural areas of some Asian countries. Although the risk of infection is low for most travelers, it is a dangerous illness that can lead to brain infection \u2013 one in four people who develop encephalitis will die and many others will have a permanent neurological disability. Japanese encephalitis is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia. 8. Meningococcal infection Caused by the meningococcal bacteria that causes menengitis disease, it is spread to other people by sneezing, coughing, or contact. In addition, it can be spread through soil or saliva or when people share drinks or food. Meningococcal infection is usually recommended for travellers who are going to be in close contact with the residents in the country of travel in Africa or Middle East. It is required for tourists to Mecca (for the annual \u201cHaj\u201d), normally 10 days before travelling to Saudi Arabia and it costs Sh4130.\u00a0 9. Rabies It is an infection in the brain caused by a virus. Rabies is spread through a scratch or bite of an infected animal like a dog. It is recommended that one is vaccinated if they are at risk of exposure to rabies and for travellers staying one month or longer in high risk regions like Africa, Latin America, India as well as South East Asia. One should also be extra careful when travelling with children as they have a high tendency to play or touch stray animals, which might be dangerous. It costs Sh1,500 in most hospitals.\u00a0 10. Malaria\u00a0 Last, but not least, we have malaria, which exists throughout the year in most tropical countries. In most instances one is required to take an antimalarial, or malaria pills, to safeguard them from the disease. It is vital for one to seek assistance from a health specialist to assist in identifying the best drug for the trip. Kenya launched the world\u2019s first malaria vaccine known as RTS,S last year and is available to children from six months of age.